Tennis Elbow diagnosis. Injury and Prevention. Super Soldier Project.

Tennis Elbow



Tennis elbow (aka lateral epicondylitis) is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse.  This overuse is usually from repeating the same motions continuously overtime in our daily lives. As a result, damage occurs to the tendons that join the forearm muscles to the outside of the elbow.  Naturally, this damage can cause much pain and tenderness in that particular region of the elbow where the forearm muscles attach.


lateral epicondylitis. Rehabilitation exercises. Sports injuries treatment. injury prevention.
Tennis Elbow Pain Strikes.


Tennis elbow received its name from repetitive stress injuries received from playing tennis.  The particular movements that are responsible for the condition are notably forearm supination (turning the forearm over with the palm up) and wrist extension.  It should be noted that many tennis elbow sufferers have never played tennis in their lives!  The condition can occur at any time, usually post-exercise or after some form of manual lifting.  How long Tennis Elbow symptoms last can be uncertain.  Cases that are longer than six weeks are considered to be sub-acute and beyond three months, as chronic tennis elbow.



Know thy enemy



The elbow joint is comprised of three bones: your upper arm bone (humerus) and two long bones in your forearm (the radius and ulna). There are bony bumps at the distal end (base) of the humerus called epicondyles. The bony bump on the outside (lateral side) of the elbow is called the lateral epicondyle.  Muscles, ligaments, and tendons attach here and hold the elbow joint together.

The tendons and muscles that lateral epicondylitis affects, involves those of the forearm.  In particular, the forearm muscles that extend your wrist and fingers and the forearm tendons (extensors) which attach the muscles to bone. They are each attached at the elbow onto the lateral epicondyle.  The specific tendon (usually) involved in tennis elbow is known as the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB).

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Muscle. lateral epicondylitis. Rehabilitation exercises. Sports injuries treatment. injury prevention.
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Muscle. Tennis Elbow Pain.

Acute lateral epicondylitis

When the ECRB is weakened from overuse or more force is applied to the area than normal healthy tissue can handle. Microscopic tears form in the tendon where it attaches to the lateral epicondyle.  Over time these tears lead to inflammation and pain. 

The ECRB may also be at increased risk for damage because of its position. As the elbow bends and straightens, the muscle rubs against bony bumps. This friction can cause gradual wear and tear of the muscle over time. 

Common tennis elbow causes can include unaccustomed hand use.  For example by painting a fence; hammering; continuous typing (from those last-second essays); excessive/repetitive gripping or twisting tasks.  It can also result from during sporting activities due to poor forearm muscle strength, tight muscles or poor sports technique.


Chronic lateral epicondylitis

Cases of tennis elbow that are longer than 3 months are considered to be ‘Chronic’ (ongoing, persisting) tennis elbow. Chronic tennis elbow is associated with degenerative changes in the muscle tissues located at the epicondyle. Although for a long time this was thought to be related to inflammation from overuse, this is now known to be incorrect.



A person will typically experience pain in the lateral epicondyles when the muscles are stretched when undertaking gripping tasks or any motion requiring wrist tension/finger movement.  There will be tenderness directly over the bony epicondyle, and there may be trigger points in the wrist muscles. 

The symptoms of tennis elbow develop gradually and in many cases, the pain begins as mild and then slowly worsens over the coming weeks.  There is usually no specific injury associated with the start of symptoms.  Other common indicators of tennis elbow include pain or burning on the outer part of your elbow and weak grip strength.

The symptoms are often worsened with further forearm activity.  For example, holding heavy objects such as a hammer or supporting one’s body weight using just the hands. The dominant arm is most often affected although it is usual for both arms to be affected.

Who suffers from lateral epicondylitis?

As you may have guessed, athletes are not the only people who suffer tennis elbow (Although it is present in 40% of all tennis players!).  People working in repetitive manual trades, such as painters, plumbers, and carpenters are particularly prone to developing tennis elbow. Furthermore, studies have shown that mechanics, cooks, and butchers also get tennis elbow more often than the rest of the population.  It is thought that the repetition and heavy lifting required in these occupations is what often leads to injury.

Tennis elbow can occur at any age.  However, sufferers are generally between the ages of 35 and 50, with males and females being affected equally.  Finally, tennis elbow occurrence can also be of unknown cause without any recognised risk factors or repetitive injury, in these cases, it is labelled as having an ‘insidious onset’.


Tennis Elbow pain. lateral epicondylitis. Rehabilitation exercises. Sports injuries treatment. injury prevention.
Tennis elbow pain to a tennis player of all people…


Lateral epicondylitis diagnosis

Tennis elbow can usually be diagnosed by a relevant professional with experience with the condition such as a physiotherapist or a doctor.  After listening to the injury history, and undertaking some clinical tests a provisional diagnosis of tennis elbow can be made.  An MRI scan and/or an Ultrasound scan can be used to identify any tendon tears or inflammation.


 lateral epicondylitis Diagnosis. Ultrasound. Rehabilitation exercises. Sports injuries treatment. injury prevention.
Ultrasound investigation of suspected tennis elbow.


Other factors?

Some tennis elbow sufferers feel pain in the lateral elbow, but not actually be experiencing tennis elbow!  There is a high occurrence of lateral elbow pain referred to the elbow from a cervical spine (neck) injury!  The most common neck joint that refers to your lateral elbow is between levels C5 and 6.  Here, pain signals are transmitted along the radial nerve of the forearm and trick the brain into believing the elbow is where the pain originates. If you have additional neck pain or additional symptoms then this should be mentioned to your doctor.


elbow pain from pinched nerve in neck. Cervical spine referred pain.
Cervical Spine nerve injury mimicking tennis elbow.



Untreated Tennis Elbows can last anywhere from 6 months to 2 years and are sadly also prone to recurrence (as well I know!).


Treating the condition

Physiotherapy has been shown to be effective in the short and long-term management of tennis elbow.  The aims of Physiotherapy in treating the condition are

  • Pain reduction
  • Assisting with tissue repair
  • Restoring normal joint range of motion
  • Function and normal muscle length
  • Restoring strength and movement patterns as quickly as possible.


Short-term solutions – using a brace

A tennis elbow brace can be very effective for reducing pain.  The brace is designed to disperse the stressful gripping forces away from your injured structures.   So it reduces pain while protecting the healing area.  Please note, a tennis elbow brace doesn’t work if is resulting from aforementioned referred symptoms from C5-6 Vertebrae in your neck (see above).  


Tennis elbow brace. Lateral epicondylitis
Elbow Brace to relieve symptoms of tennis elbow.


Other treatment options

As per any sports or occupational injury, the use of PRICE (Protection; Rest; Ice Compression and Elevation) should be the first consideration with treatment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, as well as drugs like aspirin or ibuprofen, can be taken to reduce the pain and swelling.  However, these are short-term options.  

If the pain is ongoing a physiotherapist or doctor may suggest wrist stretching and strengthening exercises with the elbow extended (See below).  A physiotherapist may also perform ice massage or muscle-stimulating techniques to improve muscle healing.  If the condition worsens steroid injections (such as cortisone) may be considered by your doctor.  These are very effective anti-inflammatory medicines.


lateral epicondylitis treatment
Steroid injections for pain relief.

For those mad enough to exercise with the condition…

With regards to exercising with tennis elbow.  During the initial phase of the injury, stick with the PRICE techniques to allow the elbow joint sufficient time to heal.  All exercise should be avoided during this time it should be noted for all you fitness junkies out there!  Let it heal! No pull-ups!!

With my own personal injuries, I started out very light.  This was after weeks of frustration not being able to undertake barely a single press-up without experiencing intense pain!  I used isometric holds and stretches to help keep muscle tone.  Although whether you would consider such options would depend on personal choice and pain tolerance.  I had no problems unless I was actually moving the elbow joint. Additionally, if in doubt I would consult an appropriate health professional for advice prior to undertaking any activity.  Especially where stress might re-injure the affected elbow(s).


PRICE treatment. Lateral epicondylitis treatment
PRICE – Pressure. Rest. Ice. Compression. Elevation.


If symptoms are treated shortly after a flare-up this may allow for a fairly swift return to normal activity.  Chronic cases may, however, require three to six months to resolve.  It may also mean a return to your physiotherapist or doctor for further consultation.


Worst case scenario

If your symptoms do not respond after 6 to 12 months of nonsurgical treatments, your doctor may recommend surgery.  Most surgical procedures for tennis elbow involve removing diseased muscle and reattaching healthy muscle back to the bone.  The surgical approach for you will depend on several factors, including how bad the injury, your general health, personal needs etc.


What increases the risk?

Sports or jobs requiring repetitive and strenuous forearm and wrist movements (tennis, squash, racquetball, carpentry).

  • Sports that require strenuous or repetitive forearm movement (tennis, racquetball, golf).
  • Poor physical conditioning (strength and flexibility).
  • Inadequate warm-up before activity.
  • Resuming activity before healing and rehabilitation are complete.



Although there are no absolute guarantees at avoiding a tennis elbow injury.  There are a number of things can be done to help to reduce the risks.

  • Improving wrist and forearm strength and flexibility through regular exercise.
  • Warm-ups and stretching before exercise.
  • Correct technique and the use of proper equipment (i.e., racquet size/weight and grip).


Rehabilitation and Strengthening Techniques

Physiotherapy. Lateral epicondylitis treatment
Physiotherapy to treat elbow pain.


Fist clench

Poor grip strength is a common symptom of tennis elbow. Improving grip strength by building the muscles of the forearm can help improve the ability to perform daily activities.

Equipment: Tennis Ball

Muscles Involved: long flexor tendons of the fingers and thumb.

  • Sit at a table with your forearm resting on the table.
  • Hold the tennis ball in your affected hand.
  • Squeeze the ball as hard as you can and hold for 15 seconds.
  • Release and repeat 10 times. Switch and do the other arm (even if not affected).


Supination with a dumbbell

The supinator muscle is a large muscle of the forearm that attaches into the elbow. It’s responsible for turning the palm upward and is often involved in movements that can cause tennis elbow.

Equipment: Light dumbbell.

Muscles Involved: Supinator forearm muscle.

  • Sit in a chair holding a light dumbbell vertically in your hand with your elbow resting on your knee.
  • Let the weight of the dumbbell help rotate the arm outward, turning the palm up.
  • Rotate the hand back the other direction until your palm is facing downward.
  • Repeat 20 times on each side.
  • Concentrate on isolating the movement to the lower arm, ensure your upper arm and elbow remain still.


Wrist extension

The wrist extensors are a group of muscles that are responsible for bending the wrist.  Like when signalling to someone to ‘talk to the hand’.  These small muscles that connect into the elbow are often subject to overuse, especially during racquet sports.

Equipment: Light dumbbell

Muscles Involved: wrist extensors

  • Sit in a chair holding a light dumbbell in your hand with your palm facing down.  Rest your elbow comfortably on your knee.
  • Keeping your palm facing down, extend your wrist by curling it towards your body. If this is too challenging, do the movement with no weight.
  • Return to starting position and repeat 10 times on each side.
  • Concentrate on isolating the movement to the wrist, keeping the rest of the arm still.


Wrist flexion

The wrist flexors are a group of muscles that work opposite the wrist extensors. These small muscles that connect into the elbow are also subject to overuse, leading to pain and inflammation.

Equipment: Light dumbbell.

Muscles worked: wrist flexors

  • Sit in a chair holding a light dumbbell in your hand with your palm facing up and elbow resting comfortably on your knee.
  • Keeping your palm facing up, flex your wrist by curling it towards your body.
  • Return to starting position and repeat 10 times on each side.
  • Try to isolate the movement to the wrist, keeping the rest of the arm still.


Towel twist

Equipment: hand towel

Muscles worked: wrist extensors, wrist flexors

  • Sit in a chair holding a towel with both hands, shoulders relaxed.
  • Twist the towel with both hands in opposite directions as if you are wringing out water.
  • Repeat 10 times then repeat another 10 times in the other direction.


Hoping this helps out anyone suffering or trying to train with this condition.  Hoping to get more injury posts soon.

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